Nitrate (NO3) can exist as an organic or inorganic compound, it can be
natural or man made, and it is often found in drinking water supplies.
Nitrates come in different forms such as ammonium nitrates (NH4NO),
potassium nitrates (KNO3), and sodium nitrates (NaNO3). Nitrates can be
expressed as nitrate as nitrogen (NO3-N), or nitrate as nitrate
(NO3-NO3) on the water analysis. It is very important that the form of
nitrate tested be identified on a water analysis test.
While nitrate itself is nontoxic, it is reduced to nitrite (NO2) by
bacteria in the well or stomach. Nitrite passing into the bloodstream
can be taken up by hemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to
transport oxygen, causing oxygen deficiency anemia. Infants under six
months of age are especially susceptible to this effect, causing the
so-called "Blue baby" syndrome.
In poults, as with other infant monogastrics (single stomached system),
their digestive systems contain nitrate-converting bacteria. Because of
this, they are much more susceptible to methemoglobinemia. Fully grown
monogastrics are not as susceptible to methemoglobinemia because their
digestive system does not contain these bacteria. They are, however,
susceptible to thyroid enlargement. Even so, it is believed that
nitrate levels over 20 ppm are detrimental to performance. Nitrate
levels as low as 3 ppm has been suspect in affecting broiler
performance. It is also believed that heat stress and low pH compound
the negative effects of nitrites in various breeds of birds.
As nitrates are produced during the final stage of decomposition of
organic matter, nitrites are produced during intermediate stages of
decomposition. Nitrites are toxic at much lower levels than nitrates as
concentrations as low as 1 ppm can be toxic.
Nitrate in ground water has been known to be a potential health problem
for more than 50 yrs. Depending on the form of nitrate, the USEPA
maximum contaminant level (MCL) for humans in public drinking water
varies from 45 ppm (NO3-NO3) down to 1 ppm (NO2-N). Water guidelines
for poultry have set 25 ppm (NO3-N) as the maximum acceptable level
which is substantially higher than the USEPA standards of drinking
water of 10 ppm for the same form of nitrate. It is estimated by EPA's
1990 National Pesticide Survey that over 5% of private water wells
exceed the MCL for nitrates. The size of the animal is the main
determinate of MCL in livestock.
Nitrates & Nitrites must be removed from private wells!
We need to be religious about keeping nitrates under control in our
private wells (those used for drinking water for our family and our
livestock). Just a few years ago, nitrate removal was not a problem for
private wells, because there was no way to remove it. You can not
oxidize it with chlorine nor filter it with sand or carbons. Using
reverse osmosis or distillation would work but only for small volumes
of water, but large volumes of water would make them cost prohibitive
and labor intensive.
The past solution was to find a more promising location for a new,
deeper well away from septic fields, cess-pools, hog wastes sprayed on
fields for cultivation, poultry litter spread on fields for
cultivation, inorganic fertilizers applied on row crops etc., and go to
an aquifer deeper than the one presently used. Once nitrates have
percolated into the aquifer, they can spread considerable distances. A
deeper well may or may not solve the problem and it is a costly gamble
at best. If your well is an old dug or drilled shallow well, the
chances are high that a deeper well will be an improvement.
Today, there are nitrate-specific, anion resins manufactured primarily
for nitrate removal (Water Softener). This resin does not remove
nitrates only, but it does have a higher affinity for the nitrate
versus the sulfate, tannins or bicarbonates.
Strong base anion resins will remove nitrates; however, they are
actually more selective for sulfates over nitrates. If the sulfate ppm
is high, it will preferentially collect sulfates over nitrates on the
resin. If the resin is not regenerated and it becomes saturated or over
exhausted, then the resin will release collected nitrates in exchange
for sulfates causing a sharp rise in nitrate levels (nitrate dumping).
Sulfates must be considered when examining nitrate removal. Sulfates
have been known to scar the intestinal tract of animals which effect
the feed conversion, reduce body weight, and may cause a laxative
affect. When removing nitrates, sulfates must also be removed. Choosing
a nitrate-select resin could cause sulfate dumping.
The proper resin in the proper cubic footage and adequate regeneration
will produce beneficial results. Other factors such as pH, the ppm of
sulfates, and bicarbonates should also be considered in the selection
of the resin and its volume.
In this type of treatment, a solution (usually sodium chloride) is
introduced into the water to assist in the nitrate removal process.
Chlorides are exchanged for nitrates and sulfates. The nitrates and
sulfates are then captured in the adsorptive resin. Potassium may be
used in place of salt if high sodium levels are a concern. It will
require about 1.26 times as much potassium as salt, which makes it more