are the slimy layer of amalgamated bacteria, fungi, and algae that form
on wet surfaces. Water sources available to livestock have been
identified as important biosecurity and agroterrorism concerns because
of the presence of biofilms. Many foodborne pathogens, in
particular campylobacter, salmonella, E. coli, pseudomonas, and
staphylococcus, can be spread to the flock from the poultry
water. Protective measures of water quality assurance programs
need to be in place in order to reduce vulnerability to microbial
infection. Common disinfectants are not effective in eliminating
biofilm. To penetrate and remove them, the product must be able
to hydrolyze the biofilm to separate and destroy it.
forms when hard water (containing a large amount of minerals such as
calcium and magnesium) attaches to the plumbing. Mineral scale
clogs plumbing and regulators, decreases pressure, and causes sticking
or leaking for nipple drinkers. Most disinfectants simply pass over the
cracks and crevices, and the microorganisms continue to flourish.
We recommend our pretreated water solutions (i.e. water filtration or
softened water) to avoid high replacement costs and reduce or prevent
biofilm must be removed before adding an acid to dissolve mineral
scale. An acid cannot fully penetrate and will not hydrolyze the
biofilm. Our EPA-registered product can remove the biofilm before
scale can be dissolved. We recommend that the influent pH of the
water also be considered as water with a natural pH of 8.5 requires the
use of more acid than water at 7.2.
hard water may shorten the life of plumbing and lessen the
effectiveness of certain cleaning agents. Because of the problems
associated with hard water (including laundry damage, soap residue
after bathing, and pipework clogging), we encourage you to test your
water. For municipal water, call your local water
provider. They can tell you the average hardness and iron
levels. If you have a private well, you can send us a water
sample and we will test it for FREE and review your options.
Please visit our selection of water softening products.
is known to leach into water supplies throughout the United States from
rock and soil formations. A yellow to reddish discoloration can
appear in water, even in very low concentrations, and begin the
staining and scale process. This may depend on the pH, taste, and
odor problems. Five types of iron can be found in portable
five types of iron found in portable water have different iron removal
methods. Heme iron, the iron found in organics, cannot be removed
by softening resins. Most common in surface water and shallow
wells, a filtration media must be used to remove the oxidized iron and
the residual of chlorine. For iron bacteria, which has a reddish
color and foul odor, ozonation is the recommended solution for the
problem. For ferric iron, also known as red water iron, we
recommend filtration. Ferrous iron, or clear water iron, may be
removed by a softening resin with a positive charge. If you have
more questions about identifying iron, we would be happy to assist you
and recommend products accordingly.
gas produces an offensive “rotten egg” or “sulfur water” odor and taste
in the water that is quite distinct. If you suspect that your
water contains hydrogen sulfide, we recommend utilizing an oxidizing
media filter or chemical feed pump with an oxidant and retention tank
for effective removal.
is often found in drinking water supplies. While nontoxic,
bacteria in the well or stomach may reduce it to nitrate (NO2).
Nitrite passing into the bloodstream can reduce the blood’s ability to
transport oxygen, causing oxygen deficiency anemia. We MUST keep
nitrates under control in our private wells – for human drinking as
well as poultry.
Chlorinated Pools and Salt Water Pools
to popular belief, the answer is no. The lines of chlorinated
pools remain susceptible to biofilm formation. Regardless of the
water quality or water source, we highly encourage that the water lines
be cleaned between flocks.
incorrectly assume that salt water pools are less expensive and
maintenance than chlorinated pools. Actually, you might as well
use bleach, which is also sodium hypochlorite! Science aside, you
essentially make the chlorine yourself with a salt water chlorinator
for a saltwater pool. Unfortunately, many complain that they
cannot get the desired chlorine level. Furthermore, if phosphates
are present in the water, they are food for algae. When this
happens, your pool simply will not catch up and build a reserve of
chlorine in the water. We suggest that pool owners test the pH
and alkalinity with frequency – it is best to run between 7.4 and 7.6
when using chlorine. With
ionization technology, you can avoid the complications of salt water
pools and the chlorine hazards of both and enjoy a chlorine-free pool.
deck anchors are usually cast aluminum with a stainless steel
ladder. When pool owners over-chlorinate, the salt water will
corrode equipment, the pool surface, lighting fixtures, and ladders
over time. We advise sealing coping and hosing it down with fresh water
daily if you use a salt water system.
buying a chlorinator, oversize the unit for your pool as a rule of
thumb. You are better off having a chlorinator that is too large
rather than too small. The larger chlorinator can be turned back
or run for less time, while the small unit will mean algae
problems. Many do not realize that a salt water generator must be
chlorine disinfects drinking water, it also reacts with other particles
to form disinfection byproducts. The most common of these are
trihalomethanes, classified by the EPA as probable carcinogens.
Many believe that chlorine is the original Persistent Organic
Pollutant. This concern has been warranting more public attention
because organochlorines have been linked to immune system suppression,
falling sperm counts and infertility, and learning disabilities in
children. The U.S. Council of Environmental Quality studied the
risks of drinking chlorinated water and found that chlorinated water
drinkers had a 93% higher cancer risk than those who drank
non-chlorinated water. Numerous studies, facts, and figures
support the notion that chlorine is a health hazard.
Chlorine is required by health regulations to be present in all public
drinking water supplies. It is up to the individual to remove the
chlorine by “point of entry systems” at the home and “point of use
systems” elsewhere when possible. While acknowledging that
chlorine has many valuable uses, our products provide an inexpensive
resolution for this growing health risk.
ionization is a safe and effective technology and is the ONLY healthy
option for pools, spas, and drinking water. Intec was the first
company to commercialize this technology and has been providing it for
over 30 years. For more information, see our Chlorine Free Pools and Chemical Free Pools page.
Intec Disinfecting Systems
lethal to bacteria and algae, a multitude of scientific tests show the
effectiveness of copper systems over chlorine. Experiments at the
University of Arizona suggest that such mineral ions and trace chlorine
are 1,000 times more effective against algae than chlorine alone!
Copper ionization completely purifies water. Copper kills algae
and bacteria at a wide range pH level. Maintain a proper pH
balance in your pool. A light flocking agent or oxidant may be
necessary as filtration aid to remove body oils, suntan lotion, or
most cases, the electrodes will last two to five years and are
relatively inexpensive to replace. Electrical consumption equates
to only a few dollars yearly. We do highly suggest that you test
the pH level every few days to ensure proper water balance and test for
copper residuals weekly. Test for calcium hardness bi-yearly.
has received a lot of attention recently because it is highly effective
for all groups of organisms, particularly viruses and bacteria.
Also, it can treat high volumes of water. One disadvantage of
ozone is the excessive production of bromates (potential carcinogens)
if the water contains bromide. It also has a reduced efficacy in
cold water. Ozonation also does not provide a persistent residual
disinfection capability, may require high capital investments, and has
relatively high operating and maintenance costs. In some
instances, we utilize ozonation as a disinfection system.
disinfection is becoming more popular and economical than ever
before. UV light is a point-of-contact disinfection system that
is highly effective in the inactivation of protozoa and does not
require the addition of any chemicals. It does this without
altering the chemistry, taste, and quality of the water.
Turbidity, however, does affect the quality of disinfection because of
what is known as the shadowing effect. Like ozone, UV has no
residual disinfection capacity. In some instances, we implement UV
to date. Many water treatment facilities are now using
multi-barrier approaches to disinfection. Most still utilize
chlorine as their primary disinfectant and then use additives to reduce
the harmful byproducts. The industry focus does not need to be on
the reduction of these byproducts, but instead, should be on
eliminating the dangerous chemicals entirely. At Intec, we have a
research team working at the forefront of these issues as we strive for
improved treatment technologies. With the thousands of satisfied
clients we’ve served around the country, you can be assured that our
technology will work for you.
Maintaining your pH
considering treating their water for impurities/contaminants such as
iron, manganese, TDS, arsenic, nitrates, microorganisms, etc., first
take the water’s pH into consideration. It is possible that one must
adjust the pH before treatment. Many filter medias and softening resins
utilized in the removal of impurities are optimized only within a
certain pH range. Water treatment systems operating outside of that pH
range may produce less than desirable results. Some disinfectants,
especially chlorine or bleach, will not effectively kill microorganisms
outside its recommended pH levels.
pH may be increased by passing the low pH water through a bed of
chemically reactive media (Neutralizing Filter). The pH may also be
increased or lowered by feeding a liquid neutralizing solution into the
stream of water (Chemical Injector). It is imperative that you consult
with a water treatment specialist on methods of adjusting pH.
Fortunately, adjusting pH is neither expensive nor overly time
Why should I utilize acidification?
Acidic water tends to keep minerals in a solution which helps with
scaling issues in plumbing. It is also a less inhabitable environment
for microorganisms (this should not by any means be considered as a
disinfectant). Acidification during feed withdrawal has shown a
reduction of salmonella in the crop and ceca or broilers. More research
needs to be conducted on this area and a comparison of various
disinfectants introduced at various pH levels to determine optimal
water quality guidelines.
All cellular activity in the body is affected by an imbalanced pH.
This imbalance leads to the progression of most degenerative diseases
such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, kidney stones,
arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular
disease and heart disease. Body pH can also be at the root of many
common symptoms such as digestive problems, heartburn, headaches,
fatigue, constipation and sleeplessness, just to mention a few. The
importance of water pH is generally overlooked, misapplied and
misunderstood in the poultry industry in particular. Check out our acid
humans, research has shown that the consumption of slightly alkaline
water is healthier. Past field research on broilers indicated that
drinking water with a pH lower than 6 can impair broiler performance.
Other research has suggested that broilers drinking water with a pH
between 5.5 and 6.0 improved feed conversion. It was recently reported
that acidification of water less than 7.0 had no statistical
improvement for feed conversion. To our knowledge, no research has
provided indisputable evidence as to the answer of this question.